Total quality management: Conventional and Islamic approach
Total quality management: Conventional and Islamic approach. By Afroza Bulbul, Farhana Ferdousi & Md. Ataur Rahman. Dhaka: Bangladesh Institute of Islamic Thought, 2013. Pp. 210, ISBN: 978-984-8471-14-2.
Reviewer: Md. Mosharraf Hossain, Professor, Department of Management Studies, Jagannath University, Dhaka, Bangladesh. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Though Total Quality Management (TQM) is relatively a new concept, it is very popular and widely applied in the field of business studies. There is a wrong perception about the Western scholarship that it is the sole contributor to the concept of TQM. The authors have proved that the concept of TQM is not new;
rather it has been developed in the early stages of Islam. The Islamic principles of TQM are: intention or objective, strategic planning, continuous improvement, competitive benchmarking, employee empowerment, welfare of customers, trustworthiness, sincerity, accountability, dedication, gratefulness, moderation, consistency, cleanliness, discipline and united effort, cooperation, conscientiousness, proficiency and efficiency and passion for excellence. The book is well designed and makes a unique contribution to modem Islamic approaches to TQM. In the beginning of each chapter, the authors have given the learning objective, then conceptual discussion of the subject matter of the chapter, learning outcomes, summary of the chapter, study questions and finally references are listed at the end of each chapter. At the end of the book, the authors have also given a glossary which has enriched the standard of the book.
The book is divided into twelve chapters. First chapter deals with modern and Islamic concepts and principles of TQM. It also covers history and evolution of TQM. The authors are of the opinion that according to Islam quality is essential for everything to be accepted by Allah (SWT). Here, quality refers to the best possible efforts to be put in by the doer and its continuous enhancement. Chapter two deals with the approaches to total quality, contributions of different scholars of TQM like Deming, Juran, and contributions of Islamic thinkers on TQM. The authors have proved that the modern principles of TQM are supported by Islam with few differences. Chapter three deals with the quality certification system, quality awards, and International Standard Organization (ISO). It also incorporates ideas on how do American firms encourage unique quality of product, satisfy the customers, and improve the overall financial performance and capability through the standard and how they measure the performance.
Chapter four deals with tools and techniques of quality planning and improvement. Special emphasis has been given on seven management and planning tools, benchmarking, six sigma, and tools for continuous improvement like control chart, pareto diagram, run chart, fishbone, diagram, check sheet and flow chart. Chapter five focuses on continuous improvement and six-sigma. In continuous improvement, it covers Kaizen‟s concepts of 5S JIT (Just in Time Delivery). Six-sigma covers the elements of six sigma and the Islamic concepts of continuous improvement. In this chapter the authors have proved the principles of continuous improvement that is supported by the Holy Qura‟n and Sunnah. Chapter six covers rationales for using benchmarking, its types, process, phases, and benefits. It also covers benchmarking methods and models.
Chapter seven highlights traditional organisational structure, problems, redesigning organisation for quality, comparison of the theories of organizational design along with Islamic perspective of organizational structure. In this chapter, the authors want to give a message about the necessity of adjusting the organization structure to TQM. Chapter eight deals with total quality and organizational change which covers demand for change, cultural change, cultural change under Islamic perspective, reengineering, with its principles and quality oriented change and organizational theory. In this chapter, importance of organizational change on TQM has been highlighted. Chapter nine includes building quality teams and empowerment which covers team and types of team, effectiveness of team work, concepts and importance of empowerment, how to empower employees, principles of empowerment and team work practices in Islam.
Chapter ten focuses on quality leadership, role of quality leader, historic approach to leadership management in different eras of six great prophets, unique leadership of Prophet Mohammad (SAW), comparison of transformational, servant and Islamic Leadership Model and its special features like trustworthiness, sincerity, accountability, dedication, gratefulness, moderation, consistency, cleanliness, discipline, cooperation, justice, proficiency, passion for excellence, continuous self evaluation, parishioners, pride and change agent. In this chapter the authors have tried to prove the superiority of Islamic leadership and Prophet Mohammad (SAW) as the greatest leader. Chapter eleven covers the competitive advantages and strategic management: quality as a generic strategy, and approaches to implement TQM strategies in organization, importance of quality in meeting customers‟ expectations in product design, services, flexibility, innovation and rapid response. And the final chapter deals with quality ethics and values such as concepts of ethical values, ethical standards for quality, ethical standard from Shriah perspective and expected features to be a good quality people.
Overall, the book is user-friendly but it has some major shortcomings. Discussions on concepts in every chapter are very brief. Furthermore, certain other important concepts are missing which, if included, would have further improved the quality of the work.